一、环境介绍

三master部署环境

本文使用5台centos7.9 vmware2核4G虚拟机

节点

IP地址

部署服务

master1

192.168.42.11

kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler etcd kubelet kube-proxy

master2

192.168.42.12

kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler etcd kubelet kube-proxy

master3

192.168.42.13

kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kube-scheduler etcd kubelet kube-proxy

node1

192.168.42.21

kubelet kube-proxy

node2

192.168.42.22

kubelet kube-proxy

vip

192.168.42.100

虚拟IP 不占用机器资源

二、环境准备

首先创建一台源主机,将所有主机都必须的环境,安装一下。(后边的克隆一下就行)

安装依赖包

yum -y install wget jq psmisc vim net-tools nfs-utils telnet yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2 git network-scripts tar curl  -y
#关闭防火墙
systemctl stop firewalld
systemctl disable firewalld
iptables -F && iptables -t nat -F && iptables -t mangle -F && iptables -X

#关闭selinux
setenforce 0
sed -i 's/enforcing/disabled/' /etc/selinux/config

#关闭swap
swapoff -a
sed -ri 's/.* swap.*/#&/' /etc/fstab

调整内核参数

cat <<EOF > /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
net.ipv4.ip_forward = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables = 1
vm.overcommit_memory = 1
vm.panic_on_oom = 0
fs.inotify.max_user_watches = 89100
fs.file-max = 52706963
fs.nr_open = 52706963
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 2310720
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 600
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_probes = 3
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_intvl = 15
net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 36000
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 327680
net.ipv4.tcp_orphan_retries = 3
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 16384
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 16384
net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.core.somaxconn = 16384
net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6 = 0
net.ipv6.conf.default.disable_ipv6 = 0
net.ipv6.conf.lo.disable_ipv6 = 0
net.ipv6.conf.all.forwarding = 1
 
EOF
modprobe br_netfilter
lsmod |grep conntrack
modprobe ip_conntrack

sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d/k8s.conf
sed -i  /UUID/d /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens33 #删除网卡uuid哪一行 确保后续克隆的机器都不一样

时间同步

yum install ntp -y
sed  '20a\server 210.72.145.44 perfer\'  /etc/ntp.conf  # 中国国家受时中心
systemctl start ntpd 
systemctl enable ntpd

升级内核


#查看当前内核版本
uname -r
uname -a
cat /etc/redhat-release 

#添加yum源仓库
mv /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo.backup 
curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo 
curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/epel-7.repo
rpm --import https://www.elrepo.org/RPM-GPG-KEY-elrepo.org
yum install -y https://www.elrepo.org/elrepo-release-7.0-4.el7.elrepo.noarch.rpm

#更新yum源仓库
yum -y update

#查看可用的系统内核包
yum --disablerepo="*" --enablerepo="elrepo-kernel" list available

#安装内核,注意先要查看可用内核,我安装的是6.4版本的内核
yum --enablerepo=elrepo-kernel install kernel-ml -y 

#查看目前可用内核
awk -F\' '$1=="menuentry " {print i++ " : " $2}' /etc/grub2.cfg

#使用序号为0的内核,序号0是前面查出来的可用内核编号
grub2-set-default 0

#生成 grub 配置文件并重启
grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
reboot

安装ipvs

yum install ipvsadm ipset sysstat conntrack libseccomp -y
mkdir -p /etc/modules-load.d/
cat >> /etc/modules-load.d/ipvs.conf <<EOF 
ip_vs
ip_vs_rr
ip_vs_wrr
ip_vs_sh
nf_conntrack
ip_tables
ip_set
xt_set
ipt_set
ipt_rpfilter
ipt_REJECT
ipip
EOF
systemctl restart systemd-modules-load.service
lsmod | grep -e ip_vs -e nf_conntrack

安装containerd

### 加载 containerd模块

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/modules-load.d/containerd.conf
overlay
br_netfilter
EOF
systemctl restart systemd-modules-load.service


cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/sysctl.d/99-kubernetes-cri.conf
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables  = 1
net.ipv4.ip_forward                 = 1
net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables = 1
EOF
 
# 加载内核
 
sysctl --system

获取阿里云YUM源
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/docker-ce.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/docker-ce/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo

查看YUM源中Containerd软件
# yum list | grep containerd
containerd.io.x86_64                     1.6.21-3.1.el7                @docker-ce-stable

下载安装:

yum install -y containerd.io

创建Containerd的配置文件

生成containerd的配置文件
mkdir /etc/containerd -p 
生成配置文件
containerd config default > /etc/containerd/config.toml
编辑配置文件
vim /etc/containerd/config.toml
-----
SystemdCgroup = false 改为 SystemdCgroup = true


# sandbox_image = "k8s.gcr.io/pause:3.6"
改为:
sandbox_image = "registry.aliyuncs.com/google_containers/pause:3.6"


------

# systemctl enable containerd
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/containerd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/containerd.service.
# systemctl start containerd
 
 
ctr version
runc -version

三、克隆主机

这里推荐完整克隆

将克隆的主机名和 ip 修改为规划的IP地址主机名称 【所有主机都需要做】

# 例master1
sed -i  '/IPADDR/c \IPADDR=192.168.42.11\'  /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens33  #替换ip为对应规划ip
hostnamectl set-hostname master1  #修改主机名称
vi /etc/hosts #添加hosts
192.168.42.11 master1
192.168.42.12 master2
192.168.42.13 master3
192.168.42.21 node1
192.168.42.22 node2
192.168.42.100 master-lb

配置免密登录【在master1上操作】

ssh-keygen -t rsa 
for i in master1 master2 master3 node1 node2 ; do ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub $i ;done

四、安装etcd

下载工具准备【在master1节点上操作】

证书工具下载

wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssl_1.6.1_linux_amd64
wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssljson_1.6.1_linux_amd64
wget https://github.com/cloudflare/cfssl/releases/download/v1.6.1/cfssl-certinfo_1.6.1_linux_amd64 
chmod +x cfssl_1.6.1_linux_amd64 cfssljson_1.6.1_linux_amd64 cfssl-certinfo_1.6.1_linux_amd64 
mv cfssl_1.6.1_linux_amd64 /usr/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_1.6.1_linux_amd64 /usr/bin/cfssljson
mv cfssl-certinfo_1.6.1_linux_amd64  /usr/bin/cfssl-certinfo


mkdir -p ~/TLS/{etcd,k8s}

cd ~/TLS/etcd
自签CA:
cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "www": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd CA",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书:
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

会生成ca.pem和ca-key.pem文件

2. 使用自签CA签发Etcd HTTPS证书
创建证书申请文件:
cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd",
    "hosts": [
    "192.168.42.11",
    "192.168.42.12",
    "192.168.42.13",
    "192.168.42.14",
    "192.168.42.15"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有etcd节点的集群内部通信IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。
生成证书:
  cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

会生成server.pem和server-key.pem文件。

部署etcd

1. Etcd 的概念:
Etcd 是一个分布式键值存储系统,Kubernetes使用Etcd进行数据存储,所以先准备一个Etcd数据库,为解决Etcd单点故障,应采用集群方式部署,这里使用3台组建集群,可容忍1台机器故障,当然,你也可以使用5台组建集群,可容忍2台机器故障。

下载地址: https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases
2. 安装配置etcd 【每个master节点都需要操作】
 wget https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases/download/v3.5.4/etcd-v3.5.4-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mkdir /opt/etcd/{bin,cfg,ssl} -p
tar zxvf etcd-v3.5.4-linux-amd64.tar.gz
mv etcd-v3.5.4-linux-amd64/{etcd,etcdctl} /opt/etcd/bin/

master1 etcd配置文件


cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-1"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.42.11:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.42.11:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.42.11:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.42.11:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.42.11:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.42.12:2380,etcd-3=https://192.168.42.13:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
EOF
---
ETCD_NAME:节点名称,集群中唯一
ETCD_DATA_DIR:数据目录
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS:集群通信监听地址
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS:客户端访问监听地址
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS:集群通告地址
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS:客户端通告地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER:集群节点地址
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN:集群Token
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE:加入集群的当前状态,new是新集群,existing表示加入已有集群

master2 etcd配置文件

cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-2"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.42.12:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.42.12:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.42.12:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.42.12:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.42.11:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.42.12:2380,etcd-3=https://192.168.42.13:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
EOF

master3 etcd配置文件

cat > /opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf << EOF
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd-3"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.42.13:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.42.13:2379"
#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.42.13:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.42.13:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd-1=https://192.168.42.11:2380,etcd-2=https://192.168.42.12:2380,etcd-3=https://192.168.42.13:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
EOF
3. systemd管理etcd 【所有master节点都需要操作】

cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/opt/etcd/cfg/etcd.conf
ExecStart=/opt/etcd/bin/etcd \
--cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--peer-cert-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
--peer-key-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \
--trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--peer-trusted-ca-file=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
--logger=zap
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
4. 拷贝刚才生成的证书 【master1上】
把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:
cp ~/TLS/etcd/ca*pem ~/TLS/etcd/server*pem /opt/etcd/ssl/
5. 同步所有主机 【master1上】
scp -r /opt/etcd/ssl root@master2:/opt/etcd/
scp -r /opt/etcd/ssl root@master3:/opt/etcd/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@master2:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@master3:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
6. 启动etcd: 【所有master节点】
启动master1后 接着启动master2 master3
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start etcd
systemctl enable etcd
添加命令到usr/bin 
ln -s /opt/etcd/bin/etcd /usr/bin/
ln -s /opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl /usr/bin/
验证etcd集群
 ETCDCTL_API=3 /opt/etcd/bin/etcdctl --cacert=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.42.11:2379,https://192.168.42.12:2379,https://192.168.42.13:2379" endpoint health --write-out=table

五、安装高可用组件

yum -y install haproxy keeplived  【所有master节点都需要做】

安装完成后更改haproxy配置文件 
 vim /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg

增加相关配置

frontend k8s-in
    bind 0.0.0.0:8443
    bind 127.0.0.1:8443
    mode tcp
    option tcplog
    tcp-request inspect-delay 5s
    default_backend k8s-masters

backend k8s-masters
    mode tcp
    option tcplog
    option tcp-check
    balance     roundrobin
    default-server inter 10s downinter 5s rise 2 fall 2 slowstart 60s maxconn 250 maxqueue 256 weight 100
    server master1 192.168.42.11:6443 check
    server master2 192.168.42.12:6443 check
    server master3 192.168.42.13:6443 check


master1 keepalivd 配置文件

! Configuration File for keepalived

global_defs {
   router_id LVS_DEVEL
}
vrrp_script chk_haproxy {
	script "/etc/keepalived/chk_haproxy.sh"
	interval 5
	weight -5
	fall 2
	rise 1
}
vrrp_instance VI_1 {
    state MASTER
    interface ens33
    mcast src ip 192.168.42.11
    virtual_router_id 51
    priority 100
    advert_int 1
    authentication {
        auth_type PASS
        auth_pass 1111
    }
    virtual_ipaddress {
        192.168.42.100
    }
    track_script {
      chk_haproxy
}
}

master2 keepalivd 配置文件
! Configuration File for keepalived

global_defs {
   router_id LVS_DEVEL
}
vrrp_script chk_haproxy {
	script "/etc/keepalived/chk_haproxy.sh"
	interval 5
	weight -5
	fall 2
	rise 1
}

vrrp_instance VI_1 {
    state BACKUP
    interface ens33
    mcast src ip 192.168.42.12
    virtual_router_id 51
    priority 100
    advert_int 1
    authentication {
        auth_type PASS
        auth_pass 1111
    }
    virtual_ipaddress {
        192.168.42.100
    }
    track_script {
      chk_haproxy
}

}
master3 keepalivd 配置文件

! Configuration File for keepalived

global_defs {
   router_id LVS_DEVEL
}

vrrp_script chk_haproxy {
	script "/bin/bash /etc/keepalived/chk_haproxy.sh"
	interval 5
	weight -5
	fall 2
	rise 1
}

vrrp_instance VI_1 {
    state BACKUP
    interface ens33
    mcast src ip 192.168.42.13
    virtual_router_id 51
    priority 100
    advert_int 1
    authentication {
        auth_type PASS
        auth_pass 1111
    }
    virtual_ipaddress {
        192.168.42.100
    }
    track_script {
      chk_haproxy
}

}

添加健康检查脚本
vim /etc/keepalived/chk_haproxy.sh 
#!/bin/bash

err=0
for i in $(seq 1 3)
do 
	check_code=$(pgrep haproxy)
	if [[ $check_code == "" ]]; then
		err=$(expr $err + 1)
		sleep 1
		continue
	else
		err=0
		break
	fi
done

if [[ $err != 0 ]]; then
	echo 'systemctl stop keepalived'
	/usr/bin/systemctl stop keepalived
	exit 1
else
 	exit 0
fi


useradd keepalived_script  #创建脚本执行用户 
chmod o+x /etc/keepalived/chk_haproxy.sh  #添加权限



启动haproxy keepalived
systemctl start haproxy 
systemctl start keepalived
systemctl enable keepalived
systemctl enable haproxy 

六、安装kubernetes

1. 从Github下载二进制文件
下载地址: 
https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/master/CHANGELOG/CHANGELOG-1.24.md
注:打开链接你会发现里面有很多包,下载一个server包就够了,包含了Master和Worker Node二进制文件。

创建k8s 的kube-apiserver证书 【master1节点操作】

cd ~/TLS/k8s

cat > ca-config.json << EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "kubernetes": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF
cat > ca-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

生成证书:
cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

会生成ca.pem和ca-key.pem文件。

2. 使用自签CA签发kube-apiserver HTTPS证书
创建证书申请文件:
cat > server-csr.json << EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "hosts": [
      "10.0.0.1",
      "127.0.0.1",
      "192.168.42.11",
      "192.168.42.12",
      "192.168.42.13",
      "192.168.42.100",
      "192.168.42.14",
      "192.168.42.15",
      "kubernetes",
      "kubernetes.default",
      "kubernetes.default.svc",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

注:上述文件hosts字段中IP为所有Master/LB/VIP IP,一个都不能少!为了方便后期扩容可以多写几个预留的IP。

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

会生成server.pem和server-key.pem文件。

4. 部署k8s1.24.2 

4.1 解压二进制包
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 
tar -zxvf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kube-apiserver kube-scheduler kube-controller-manager /opt/kubernetes/bin
cp kubectl /usr/bin/
cp kubectl /usr/local/bin/

#1. 部署kube-apiserver
#  master1 创建配置文件

cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf << EOF
KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--etcd-servers=https://192.168.42.11:2379,https://192.168.42.12:2379,https://192.168.42.13:2379 \\
--bind-address=0.0.0.0 \\
--secure-port=6443 \\
--advertise-address=192.168.42.11 \\
--allow-privileged=true \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--enable-admission-plugins=NodeRestriction \\
--authorization-mode=RBAC,Node \\
--enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true \\
--token-auth-file=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv \\
--service-node-port-range=30000-32767 \\
--kubelet-client-certificate=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem \\
--kubelet-client-key=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--tls-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem  \\
--tls-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--client-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--service-account-issuer=api \\
--service-account-signing-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--etcd-cafile=/opt/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \\
--etcd-certfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server.pem \\
--etcd-keyfile=/opt/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--requestheader-client-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--proxy-client-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem \\
--proxy-client-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--requestheader-allowed-names=kubernetes \\
--requestheader-extra-headers-prefix=X-Remote-Extra- \\
--requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group \\
--requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User \\
--enable-aggregator-routing=true \\
--audit-log-maxage=30 \\
--audit-log-maxbackup=3 \\
--audit-log-maxsize=100 \\
--audit-log-path=/opt/kubernetes/logs/k8s-audit.log"
EOF

注:上面两个\ \ 第一个是转义符,第二个是换行符,使用转义符是为了使用EOF保留换行符。
• --logtostderr:启用日志
• ---v:日志等级
• --log-dir:日志目录
• --etcd-servers:etcd集群地址
• --bind-address:监听地址
• --secure-port:https安全端口
• --advertise-address:集群通告地址
• --allow-privileged:启用授权
• --service-cluster-ip-range:Service虚拟IP地址段
• --enable-admission-plugins:准入控制模块
• --authorization-mode:认证授权,启用RBAC授权和节点自管理
• --enable-bootstrap-token-auth:启用TLS bootstrap机制
• --token-auth-file:bootstrap token文件
• --service-node-port-range:Service nodeport类型默认分配端口范围
• --kubelet-client-xxx:apiserver访问kubelet客户端证书
• --tls-xxx-file:apiserver https证书
• 1.20版本必须加的参数:--service-account-issuer,--service-account-signing-key-file
• --etcd-xxxfile:连接Etcd集群证书
• --audit-log-xxx:审计日志
• 启动聚合层相关配置:--requestheader-client-ca-file,--proxy-client-cert-file,--proxy-client-key-file,--requestheader-allowed-names,--requestheader-extra-headers-prefix,--requestheader-group-headers,--requestheader-username-headers,--enable-aggregator-routing

2. 拷贝刚才生成的证书
把刚才生成的证书拷贝到配置文件中的路径:
cp ~/TLS/k8s/ca*pem ~/TLS/k8s/server*pem /opt/kubernetes/ssl/

3. 启用 TLS Bootstrapping 机制
TLS Bootstraping:Master apiserver启用TLS认证后,Node节点kubelet和kube-proxy要与kube-apiserver进行通信,必须使用CA签发的有效证书才可以,当Node节点很多时,这种客户端证书颁发需要大量工作,同样也会增加集群扩展复杂度。为了简化流程,Kubernetes引入了TLS bootstraping机制来自动颁发客户端证书,kubelet会以一个低权限用户自动向apiserver申请证书,kubelet的证书由apiserver动态签署。所以强烈建议在Node上使用这种方式,目前主要用于kubelet,kube-proxy还是由我们统一颁发一个证书。

创建上述配置文件中token文件:
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/token.csv << EOF
c47ffb939f5ca36231d9e3121a252940,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:node-bootstrapper"
EOF
格式:token,用户名,UID,用户组
token也可自行生成替换:
head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' '

4. systemd管理apiserver
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-apiserver.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-apiserver \$KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

5. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-apiserver 
systemctl enable kube-apiserver

部署kube-controller-manager 【所有master节点都需要】

1. 创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf << EOF
KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--leader-elect=true \\
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig \\
--bind-address=127.0.0.1 \\
--allocate-node-cidrs=true \\
--cluster-cidr=10.244.0.0/16 \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--cluster-signing-cert-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--cluster-signing-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \\
--root-ca-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-private-key-file=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--cluster-signing-duration=87600h0m0s"
EOF

•--kubeconfig:连接apiserver配置文件
•--leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)
•--cluster-signing-cert-file/--cluster-signing-key-file:自动为kubelet颁发证书的CA,与apiserver保持一致

2. 生成kubeconfig文件 【生成的证书在master1节点做一次 后续的master节点直接cp过去】
生成kube-controller-manager证书:
# 切换工作目录
cd ~/TLS/k8s

# 创建证书请求文件
cat > kube-controller-manager-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-controller-manager",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing", 
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-controller-manager-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-controller-manager

生成kubeconfig文件(以下是shell命令,直接在终端执行): 【所有master节点都需要】
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.42.11:8443"  #master节点不同时要修改ip地址为master节点ip

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials kube-controller-manager \
  --client-certificate=./kube-controller-manager.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-controller-manager-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-controller-manager \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
3. systemd管理controller-manager
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-controller-manager.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-controller-manager \$KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
4. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager

部署kube-scheduler
1. 创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.conf << EOF
KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--leader-elect \\
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig \\
--bind-address=127.0.0.1"
EOF
•--kubeconfig:连接apiserver配置文件
•--leader-elect:当该组件启动多个时,自动选举(HA)

2. 生成kubeconfig文件
生成kube-scheduler证书:
# 切换工作目录
cd ~/TLS/k8s

# 创建证书请求文件
cat > kube-scheduler-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-scheduler",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-scheduler-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-scheduler

生成kubeconfig文件:
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://172.16.10.21:6443"

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials kube-scheduler \
  --client-certificate=./kube-scheduler.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-scheduler-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-scheduler \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

生成kubeconfig文件:
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-scheduler.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.42.11:6443" #同上

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials kube-scheduler \
  --client-certificate=./kube-scheduler.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-scheduler-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-scheduler \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

4. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-scheduler
systemctl enable kube-scheduler

 查看集群状态
生成kubectl连接集群的证书:
cat > admin-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "admin",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin
生成kubeconfig文件:
mkdir /root/.kube

KUBE_CONFIG="/root/.kube/config"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.42.11:6443" #同上

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials cluster-admin \
  --client-certificate=./admin.pem \
  --client-key=./admin-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=cluster-admin \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

通过kubectl工具查看当前集群组件状态:三个master节点都显示正常即可
[root@master1 TLS]# kubectl get cs
Warning: v1 ComponentStatus is deprecated in v1.19+
NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE                         ERROR
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                              
scheduler            Healthy   ok                              
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true","reason":""}   
etcd-2               Healthy   {"health":"true","reason":""}   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true","reason":""}   

授权kubelet-bootstrap用户允许请求证书  只需要在master1 节点做一次
kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap \
--clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper \
--user=kubelet-bootstrap

七、部署worker节点

在所有worker node创建工作目录: 【在所有master节点部署kubelet kube-proxy】
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 
从master节点拷贝:
cd /root/k8s-install-software
cd kubernetes/server/bin
cp kubelet kube-proxy /opt/kubernetes/bin   # 本地拷贝
1. 创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf << EOF
KUBELET_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \
--v=2 \
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \
--hostname-override=master1 \    #这里每个master节点不同 需要修改成每个master节点主机名称
--kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig \
--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/bootstrap.kubeconfig \
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml \
--cert-dir=/opt/kubernetes/ssl \
--container-runtime=remote  \
--runtime-request-timeout=15m  \
--container-runtime-endpoint=unix:///run/containerd/containerd.sock  \
--cgroup-driver=systemd \
--feature-gates=IPv6DualStack=true"
2. 配置参数文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
address: 0.0.0.0
port: 10250
readOnlyPort: 10255
cgroupDriver: cgroupfs
clusterDNS:
- 10.0.0.2
clusterDomain: cluster.local 
failSwapOn: false
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: false
  webhook:
    cacheTTL: 2m0s
    enabled: true
  x509:
    clientCAFile: /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem 
authorization:
  mode: Webhook
  webhook:
    cacheAuthorizedTTL: 5m0s
    cacheUnauthorizedTTL: 30s
evictionHard:
  imagefs.available: 15%
  memory.available: 100Mi
  nodefs.available: 10%
  nodefs.inodesFree: 5%
maxOpenFiles: 1000000
maxPods: 110
EOF
生成kubelet初次加入集群引导kubeconfig文件
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/bootstrap.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.42.100:8443" # apiserver IP:PORT  这里写lb的vip地址 保证所有的请求都走lb 分发给不同的master主机
TOKEN="c47ffb939f5ca36231d9e3121a252940" # 与token.csv里保持一致

# 生成 kubelet bootstrap kubeconfig 配置文件
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials "kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --token=${TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user="kubelet-bootstrap" \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
4. systemd管理kubelet
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kubelet \$KUBELET_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kubelet

 批准kubelet证书申请并加入集群
# 查看kubelet证书请求
[root@rocksrvs01 bin]# kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE   SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           REQUESTEDDURATION   CONDITION
node-csr-25lWqzBCO_K-97mQaHJ7GIArqwcAgBCTEMWJWsBK5R0   73s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   <none>              Pending


# 批准申请
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-25lWqzBCO_K-97mQaHJ7GIArqwcAgBCTEMWJWsBK5R0

# 查看节点
[root@rocksrvs01 bin]# kubectl get node
NAME          STATUS     ROLES    AGE   VERSION
master1      NotReady   <none>   9s    v1.24.2


注:由于网络插件还没有部署,节点会没有准备就绪 NotReady

部署kube-proxy

1. 创建配置文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf << EOF
KUBE_PROXY_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--v=2 \\
--log-dir=/opt/kubernetes/logs \\
--config=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml"
EOF
2. 配置参数文件
cat > /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml << EOF
kind: KubeProxyConfiguration
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
bindAddress: 0.0.0.0
metricsBindAddress: 0.0.0.0:10249
clientConnection:
  kubeconfig: /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig
hostnameOverride: master1                #这里同样每个节点改主机名称
clusterCIDR: 10.244.0.0/16
mode: ipvs
ipvs:
  scheduler: "rr"
iptables:
  masqueradeAll: true
EOF
3. 生成kube-proxy.kubeconfig文件
# 切换工作目录
cd ~/TLS/k8s

# 创建证书请求文件
cat > kube-proxy-csr.json << EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

# 生成证书
cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy
生成kubeconfig文件:
KUBE_CONFIG="/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.kubeconfig"
KUBE_APISERVER="https://192.168.42.100:8443"         #这里同样配置lb的vip 

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=/opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
  --client-certificate=./kube-proxy.pem \
  --client-key=./kube-proxy-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-proxy \
  --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=${KUBE_CONFIG}

4. systemd管理kube-proxy
cat > /usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service << EOF
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Proxy
After=network.target

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy.conf
ExecStart=/opt/kubernetes/bin/kube-proxy \$KUBE_PROXY_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF
5. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kube-proxy
systemctl enable kube-proxy

所有三个master 节点 都配置了kubelet 和 kube-proxy 才能作为work节点使用 每个master节点重复上面步骤就行

现在部署一个只有kubelet 和 kube-proxy的work节点

在所有worker node创建工作目录:
mkdir -p /opt/kubernetes/{bin,cfg,ssl,logs} 
1. 拷贝已部署好的Node相关文件到新节点
在Master节点将Worker Node涉及文件拷贝到新节点172.16.10.22/23

scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@192.168.42.21:/opt/

scp /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem root@192.168.42.21:/opt/kubernetes/ssl

scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@192.168.42.21:/usr/lib/systemd/system

scp -r /opt/kubernetes root@192.168.42.22:/opt/

scp /opt/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem root@192.168.42.22:/opt/kubernetes/ssl

scp -r /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kubelet,kube-proxy}.service root@192.168.42.22:/usr/lib/systemd/system
2. 删除kubelet证书和kubeconfig文件
rm -f /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.kubeconfig 
rm -f /opt/kubernetes/ssl/kubelet*
rm -rf /opt/kubernetes/logs/*
注:这几个文件是证书申请审批后自动生成的,每个Node不同,必须删除
3. 修改主机名 [改节点的主机名]
vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kubelet.conf
--hostname-override=node1

vi /opt/kubernetes/cfg/kube-proxy-config.yml
hostnameOverride:node1

4. 启动并设置开机启动
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl start kubelet kube-proxy
systemctl enable kubelet kube-proxy

# 查看证书请求
kubectl get csr
NAME                                                   AGE   SIGNERNAME                                    REQUESTOR           REQUESTEDDURATION   CONDITION
node-csr-25lWqzBCO_K-97mQaHJ7GIArqwcAgBCTEMWJWsBK5R0   24m   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   <none>              Approved,Issued
node-csr-IrimTixAKWkzkxRoW16AGysidwphRdQ_3gtFMqCHk2I   72s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   <none>              Pending
node-csr-sGMTxy2cYJAQd7FTISafSg42_1x8AEftun8nFZsaoU0   76s   kubernetes.io/kube-apiserver-client-kubelet   kubelet-bootstrap   <none>              Pending


# 授权请求
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-IrimTixAKWkzkxRoW16AGysidwphRdQ_3gtFMqCHk2I
kubectl certificate approve node-csr-sGMTxy2cYJAQd7FTISafSg42_1x8AEftun8nFZsaoU0

两个node节点部署好后 查看集群节点
kubectl get node 
[root@master1 prom]# kubectl get node
NAME      STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
master1   Ready    <none>   32h   v1.24.2
master2   Ready    <none>   32h   v1.24.2
master3   Ready    <none>   32h   v1.24.2
node1     Ready    <none>   31h   v1.24.2
node2     Ready    <none>   31h   v1.24.2

后续需要部署必要组件 calico网络组件 crondns 组件 网上有现成的yaml文件 这里给出两个链接

calico网络:

https://sg.ayi.life/all/k8s/calico-DaemonSet.yaml

https://sg.ayi.life/all/k8s/calico.yaml

crondns :

https://sg.ayi.life/all/k8s/coredns.yaml